Mixed Migration Review 2021

Reframing human mobility in a changing world

Explore the report and watch the launch event recording
Photo: Emmanuel Nalli / Shutterstock

First results from 4Mi data collection in Turkey

Afghans en route to Turkey

Routes, protection risks, and access to assistance

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4Mi Interactive

A portal for exploration and visualisation of data on mixed migration

Watch the explainer video and discover the NEW dashboard

About the Middle East Regional Hub

As part of the MMC global network, MMC Middle East (ME) works towards the objectives of the MMC by engaging in data collection, research, analysis and policy development on mixed migration.

The Middle East hub focuses on Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT), the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, and Turkey. Among the key themes covered in the Middle East region are the profiles, intentions, risks, socio-economic conditions and vulnerabilities of people in mixed migration flows as well as those stranded or stuck in protracted displacement. We are also committed to understanding the protection needs of refugees and migrants in an irregular situation and those who are impacted by the Kefala (sponsorship) system – which is applied in GCC countries, Lebanon and Jordan.

As of August 2020, the MMC Middle East hub is no longer operational but its activities have been partially absorbed by MMC Asia and MMC Europe, to keep an eye on important mixed migration dynamics in the Middle East and in particular Turkey. 


Mixed Migration in the Middle East

The Middle East is a critical region from a mixed migration standpoint. This importance stems from the fact that the region has always been a juncture of mixed migratory movements and continues to both host and produce a very significant proportion of the world’s refugees and migrants – including those driven by violence, conflict, persecution, climate change, urbanization, poverty and economic motivations. Since 1990, the estimated number of international migrants and refugees in the Middle East region grew from 13.8 million to 43.2 million in 2017. The latter represents around 17% of the global total of 275 million refugees and migrants worldwide in 2017. Within the region, the distribution of foreign nationals varies with 29.1 million migrant workers residing primarily in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and 5.6 million Syrian refugees residing primarily in Turkey, Jordan and Lebanon. Based on these figures, it is no surprise that Middle East has long been shaped by migration, with countries representing points of origin, transit and destination simultaneously. Trends and prospects of migratory movements to, from, and within this region are susceptible to various root causes and triggers that can lead to new movements in the future. MMC aims to  continue increasing our understanding of these movements and inform evidence-based protection responses and policies for people stuck and on the move in the Middle East.

Quarterly Mixed Migration Updates - Middle East

A quarterly update on new trends and dynamics related to mixed migration and relevant policy developments in the region.

Quarterly Mixed Migration Update Middle East, Quarter 2, 2020

This Quarterly Mixed Migration Update (QMMU) covers the Middle East region (ME). The core countries of focus for this region are Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT), the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, and Turkey. Depending on the quarterly trends and migrationrelated updates, more attention may be given to some countries...

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