Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
4Mi is the Mixed Migration Centre’s flagship primary data collection project on mixed migration. It is an innovative approach that helps fill knowledge gaps and inform policy and response regarding the nature of mixed migratory movements and the protection risks for refugees and migrants on the move. It is a regular, standardized, quantitative and globalized system, with a network of more than 120 field enumerators who interview refugees and migrants on the move in more than 15 countries.
Originally named the Mixed Migration Monitoring Mechanism Initiative, 4Mi now simply goes by its acronym.Why 4Mi?
Despite the high interest and concern around the rising phenomenon of mixed migration, policy formation, political debate and humanitarian programming are taking place in a context that often lacks concrete quantitative data. One of the reasons for this is the challenges associated with collecting data on a mobile, heterogeneous, and hard-to-reach population spread across the globe. 4Mi conducts survey interviews with thousands of refugees and migrants on mixed migrations routes around the world every year, and this data contributes to MMC’s three core objectives of improving knowledge, informing policy, and contributing to more effective protection responses. It provides an evidence base for decision-making.
4Mi conducts continuous data collection with a broad and heterogeneous target population, and its research questions are broad. More precise questions are formulated when conducting specific analyses of the data. The broad underlying questions are:
– Who is undertaking mixed migration journeys?
– What do refugees’ and migrants’ journeys look like: route, duration, conditions, financing?
– What is motivating refugees and migrants to make the journey?
– What are the aspirations and intentions of refugees and migrants?
– What dangers do refugees and migrants face on the journey and where?
– How vulnerable are refugees and migrants on their journey, and what determines their vulnerability?
– How do refugees and migrants interact with smugglers?
– How are decisions made regarding migration and the migration journey and what and who influences those decisions?
In 2022, 4Mi collected data in the following regions and countries:
– Asia and the Pacific: Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey
– East Africa: Somalia, Djibouti
– Europe: Italy
– North Africa: Libya, Sudan, Tunisia,
– West Africa: Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger
– Latin America: Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru, Mexico
Historically, 4Mi has also been active in other countries such as Afghanistan, Egypt, Germany, Greece, Kenya, India, Sweden and Yemen.
4Mi enumerators mainly operate from transit hubs and border crossing-points on mixed migration routes to maximize effective data collection, although security considerations, as well as practical access concerns, are also taken into account when selecting sites. Precise recruitment locations tend to be gathering-points such as bus stations, or community meeting-points.
In 2022, 4Mi is conducting more than 1,000 interviews per month, although the number per region and per programme will differ, and the total can be higher, or lower, depending on the number of 4Mi projects. Since its inception in 2014 and until 2022, 4Mi had conducted more than 100,000 interviews across various projects.
4Mi data is collected directly from refugees and migrants, making it an invaluable source for understanding the details of their journeys, perceptions, and perspectives at scale. 4Mi data and analysis means that migration policies, debates, and protection responses for people on the move can be grounded in evidence from refugees and migrants themselves.
4Mi is supported by a wide range of donors, both funding individual 4Mi projects and MMC regional hubs, as well as core and cross-regional activities.
In 2021 and 2022, 4Mi was implemented thanks to the support of the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), the European Commission, the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Heinrich Boll Stiftung, the International Centre for Migration Policy Development, IOM, Meta, the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Save the Children International, the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office, OHCHR, UNFPA, UNHCR, University of Edinburgh, and UNODC.
4Mi started in East Africa (Nairobi) in 2014 and was conceived by the Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat (RMMS, which is now the East Africa & Yemen hub of the Mixed Migration Centre), to fill information gaps around mixed migration, especially protection risks and vulnerabilities of people on the move.
4Mi is MMC’s flagship primary data collection project. It is run by MMC staff and 4Mi data feeds into a large number of MMC’s knowledge products. MMC is part of and is governed by DRC. MMC’s institutional link to DRC ensures its work, including that of 4Mi, is grounded in operational reality and can adapt to those realities. At the same time, MMC acts as an independent source of data, research, analysis, and policy development on mixed migration. The position of MMC does not necessarily reflect that of DRC. In different countries or along routes, MMC (often including 4Mi teams) works alongside DRC in joint programmes to provide evidence on the situation of people in mixed migration flows.
4Mi complements other data collection projects because it:
– collects original first-hand data directly among refugees and migrants;
– collects in-depth, yet quantitative, data on the range of refugees’ and migrants’ experiences;
– collects data continuously, ensuring up-to-date information and enabling a degree of comparison over time; and
– uses the same tool across all regions and routes, enabling global and cross-regional comparison.
4Mi is continuous, and for the most part, interviews respondents once on their journey. Each respondent reports on their entire journey, providing a history. And 4Mi enumerators are often operating at different points along a mixed migration route, providing data on the dynamics at different points on the journey.
However, none of this is strictly longitudinal data. However, in 2021 4Mi successfully developed a longitudinal approach to data collection, and now has the capacity to follow the same subjects (respondents) over a longer period of time, interviewing them over regular intervals. This will be implemented in future projects, beginning in 2023.
4Mi is quantitative data collection. It uses standardised, structured surveys with almost exclusively closed-ended questions providing measurable data which can be used in statistical analysis. The nature and length of the survey and the type of questions, means that, while being quantitative, 4Mi data provides rich and in-depth insights.
Yes, 4Mi work with partners in different ways. Where 4Mi is unable to set up an office in a country or directly contract enumerators, we often work with subcontracting partners on data collection. Where there is interest in a time-bound data collection project on a specific theme, we work with partners on developing a specific, customized survey. We also have data sharing agreements with UN agencies, other INGOS and research centres, and contribute 4Mi data and analysis to specific products and projects on an ad hoc basis.
No, 4Mi is not a needs assessment tool, although the data can point to information gaps, provide contextual knowledge, and provide strong indications on the prevalence of specific needs and risks in certain locations. 4Mi data and analysis can provide a foundation that enables more targeted needs assessments.
Setting up 4Mi is a collaboration between MMC, DRC and donors, according to MMC’s strategic priorities as well as those of DRC and donors.
4Mi utilizes a mix of purposive and snowball sampling methods. That is, potential survey respondents are selected at key locations (see Where does 4Mi collect data?) according to a small set of criteria (see What are your selection criteria?). Selected respondents often refer others who also fit the criteria, and so on. When conducting interviews and recruiting participants remotely, enumerators again use a mix of methods, using referrals as well as inviting or approaching potential participants via social media platforms.
MMC collects details on the method of recruitment for each interview, in order to be able to control for bias when analysing the data.
Due to the sampling methods used, 4Mi data is not representative of national or international migration flows. It therefore cannot be used to provide estimates of the volume or characteristics of the overall migrant population.
4Mi takes a number of measures to improve the diversity of its sample. These include the quantity of interviews (more than 10,000 interviews are conducted each year), careful selection of recruitment locations, and careful recruitment of enumerators. For example, 4Mi policy is to recruit a minimum of one male and one female enumerator in each location, as this ensures a better male:female ratio of respondents. 4Mi also implements a sampling schedule in some regions, to ensure an even presence of enumerators across recruitment locations and recruitment times at each location. Specific projects related to 4Mi allow the inclusion of more random elements, where we can be confident that the data is more representative. A note on sampling is included in all MMC’s analysis products.
The main 4Mi survey consists of an in-depth structured questionnaire of around 160 items. Most items are questions, and a range of measures (nominal, ordinal, and interval) and answer options (forced-choice, multiple-choice, and Likert scale) are used to record the respondents’ answers.
The core 4Mi survey questions cover 8 key areas:
1. Profile: age, nationality, religion, sex, socio-economic status, etc.
2. Route and journey conditions: country of departure, transit countries, number of people travelling together, etc.
3. Drivers, aspirations and destination intentions: reasons for leaving, decision-making, determination to reach destination, etc.
4. Protection risks: perceived risks and dangerous locations, perpetrators, etc.
5. Assistance: type of assistance needed, assistance providers, locations where assistance is most needed, etc.
6. Smugglers: services provided by smugglers, contacts with smugglers, payment arrangements, refugees’ and migrants’ perceptions of smugglers, etc.
7. Financing the journey: sums paid, access to money while travelling, bribes paid, etc.
8. Access to information: sources of information used before and during the journey, phone and internet access, social media use, etc.
Respondents are asked one open-ended question, to allow them to speak more in their own words about any particular aspect of their migration experience.
Finally, the questionnaire includes questions (some for the enumerator) on selection criteria and other metadata covering interview conditions, possible sources of bias, etc. Respondents are also invited to ask questions at the end.
The core 4Mi survey is the same across all regions. No questions can be removed from the core survey, to enable comparison and ensure consistency, but optional modules cover specific themes in greater depth and are added to the survey in particular regions, for a particular time period, or for particular population groups. Modules have been developed on smuggling, children and youth, unexploded ordnance, livelihoods, future intentions, and exploitation.
Enumerators use the same protocol to interview respondents across all regions. First, enumerators read a script to respondents, informing them about DRC and MMC, the purpose and scope of the interview, and that the information shared by them is voluntary, anonymous and confidential.
Enumerators are trained to ensure that interviews are conducted in places where both they and the respondent feel comfortable, often a public place that offers a degree of privacy. They strive to conduct the interview uninterrupted, but it can take place on more than one occasion.
The enumerator uses a smartphone to administer the questionnaire, reading out the questions and (where prompting is required) answer options. At the end of the interview, enumerators record any challenges during the interview.
4Mi interviews are most often conducted face-to-face, but where this is not possible, most often for safety reasons, the interviews are conducted remotely, by phone.
Sampling, where this must also occur remotely, is through a mixture of purposive and snowball approaches, and participants are recruited through a number of remote or third-party mechanisms, using social media, community networks, and assistance programs. The teams have developed mechanisms that are relevant to the local context to promote diversity in recruitment and mitigate sampling bias.
Data protection measures are in place to ensure that the data collected remains anonymous. Enumerator training also reflects the different requirements of telephone interviewing.
The survey takes around 45 minutes to complete. Questionnaires that were completed in less than 20 minutes are discarded from analysis (see How is quality assured?).
Yes, 4Mi is experimenting with better recording of response rates in order to assess data quality and control for bias.
The written questionnaire is available in Arabic, English, Dari, French, Pashto, Somali and Spanish. To reach a more diverse sample, some enumerators simultaneously translate the survey into the respondent’s first language while administering it.
Definitions of terminology used in the survey are developed to ensure that translations are accurate and that participants, enumerators, and analysts all have a common understanding. In 2022, 4Mi began work on a full glossary of terms.
Yes, between 2014 and 2018, 4Mi also administered a survey to smugglers. In 2021 the survey was revised and re-activated in North and West Africa. (see Where does 4Mi collect data?). The smuggler survey is considerably shorter than the migrant survey and focuses on: the incentives of smugglers, the links of smugglers to other actors including state and non-state actors, smugglers’ modus operandi, and the ways in which smugglers interact with refugees’ and migrants’ mixed migration flows.
Additionally, 4Mi has a dedicated 4Mi Returns survey, focusing on return and reintegration experiences and challenges. 4Mi Returns took place in Afghanistan in 2021 and will take place in Senegal in late 2022/early 2023.
4Mi Cities engages with municipal authorities and asks refugees and migrants about their lives in a particular city. In partnership with the Mayors Migration Council, it has been conducted in three cities in Latin America, and three cities in East Africa.
4Mi also develops and conducts surveys with partners on particular topics, for limited time periods: one example is a survey developed and administered with UNFPA among young migrants and refugees in key cities in Africa and the Middle East.
MMC aims to maintain 4Mi’s agility to adjust to future developments and timely issues that arise and fill information gaps.
4Mi data is not representative of the general refugee and migrant population (see Is 4Mi data representative of the migrant population?) and cannot be used to estimate the numbers of migrants and/or migration fluxes in the regions where it operates.
4Mi data is also self-reported and MMC has no means to verify, for example, reported incidents.
All enumerators and staff involved in 4Mi are trained in research ethics. 4Mi deals with potentially sensitive topics and enumerators will engage with participants that may have been exposed to physical and sexual abuse or other traumatic experiences. It is therefore vital that enumerators are trained properly on how to approach participants and that they understand the importance of informing participants about the purpose of the interview and listen, show empathy and respect the limits of what the respondent wishes to share.
All participants are informed orally by the enumerators about the aim of the data collection, the anonymity and confidentiality of the survey interview, and the right not to respond and to withdraw. When discussing particularly sensitive issues relating to protection, we focus on respondents’ perceptions and do not probe their personal experience. At the end of each interview, time is set aside for participants to ask questions, making sure that participants are not left with unaddressed concerns. Participants are given an email address to contact if they have any questions after the interview.
All interviewees are anonymous. 4Mi has set procedures for data management and protection, and will not use the data for any purposes beyond those for which the participants gave their consent.
In 2017, MMC established a 4Mi External Ethical & Methodological Review Team (ExERT) consisting of professionals and academics able to assist 4Mi as an independent, external panel looking at the survey tools, training, recruitment of enumerators and other elements of the 4Mi methodology. New methodologies are also shared with external experts for review. Operationally, 4Mi programmes are managed by regional MMC teams and fall under the responsibility of the respective DRC regions. Technical oversight and quality assurance are provided by regional MMC coordinators as well as MMC in Geneva.
The enumerators who conduct the structured interviews are either from among the refugee and migrant community themselves, or (in some regions, depending on profiles and language skills) they can be nationals of the country in which the interviews take place. Attention is paid during recruitment to enumerators’ profiles (e.g. age, sex, languages spoken), as this contributes to the diversity of the sample. In 2021, MMC’s 4Mi enumerator pool had the following profile:
|Number of enumerators||126|
|Average age||32 years old|
|Gender||40% women, 60% men|
|Education level||61% high school and above|
|Average length of employment||1.8 years|
This depends. In 2021, the enumerators were from 26 different countries. Some are refugees and migrants themselves, but approximately 55% of enumerators are nationals in the country where they operate.
Yes. 4Mi enumerators are either paid per questionnaire basis, or they are on employment contracts with DRC or partners.
The enumerators receive a specific training following recruitment. Where possible, this is face-to-face and run by MMC staff. As well as in-depth sessions on administering the survey, training covers the concepts around mixed migration and primary data collection sampling methods, and ethical considerations. MMC staff provide continuous quality control and feedback during data collection.
4Mi’s target group for the core survey is adults on the move away from their country of departure on mixed migration routes, irrespective of status, though often engaging (at least for parts of the journey) in irregular migration. For the smuggler survey, 4Mi targets individuals who facilitate irregular movements of people. See our definitions of mixed migration and smugglers for more details.
For the standard migrant survey 4Mi uses the following criteria to select respondents:
-Respondents must be 18 years or older
-Respondents must have left their country of origin
-Respondents must have arrived in the location of interview no longer than 1 or 2 years ago (this depends on the country: for example, people interviewed in Athens are likely to have been involuntarily immobile for more than 12 months elsewhere in Greece before recruitment)
-Respondents must not be returning to their home country or country of departure
-Respondents must not have been interviewed by 4Mi before
In some locations, or for some 4Mi projects, we may target particular nationalities or other profiles in addition to these criteria. In other 4Mi programmes (e.g. 4Mi Returns), the criteria differ.
4Mi is a data collection and research tool and does not provide assistance. 4Mi enumerators are not trained to provide assistance and MMC is not an operational organisation. However, while maintaining a necessary boundary between data collection and research on the one hand, and provision of assistance on the other, MMC has developed an orientation mechanism, providing information on where to find help or support. This is being implemented in some locations.
No. Respondents are told that participation is voluntary and that they will not be compensated in any way before they provide consent. Respondents may be invited to a soft drink or snack during the interview, paid by the enumerator.
Although there is no direct advantage for respondents to participate, they are told that the information they share will be used to better help refugees and migrants on the move.
Yes, enumerators are obliged to obtain consent after the introductory script (see also How does 4Mi adhere to ethical standards?) and before the interview can begin.
The respondent’s names are not recorded, and instead an ID number is automatically generated. Furthermore, enumerators cannot access the data once they have submitted it. When conducting remote data collection (by phone), personal data is collected, but is stored separately to survey data, and MMC has procedures for its management and protection.
Yes. Participants can withdraw from the interview at any time and are also told that they can refuse to answer any question.
As the 4Mi survey is anonymous, results cannot be shared directly with the respondents. That said, respondents are told about MMC and its website, where results are published, and an email address is shared in case they wish to contact us after the interview.
Yes. Respondents can ask questions and make comments at the end of the interview, and these are recorded. They are also given a contact email for later feedback.
After an enumerator submits a completed interview to the 4Mi online system, the raw data is stored on servers in Germany. Data that is exported is stored locally, in one of the MMC hubs, and periodically duplicated and transferred to Geneva or Copenhagen.
Data is then subject to quality control. Survey validation procedures minimize the risk that fraudulent or fabricated data, or even errors in inputting, are introduced in the 4Mi dataset. For example, interviews that were completed in less than 20 minutes or that do not match the interview locations assigned to the enumerators are discarded.
Data cleaning involves verification of internal inconsistencies in responses and unclear responses.
Data analysis varies according to the size of the dataset and the task. 4Mi snapshots are produced by regions, and generally present descriptive statistics as visuals. More in-depth studies use regional or cross-regional datasets and can include inferential statistics (regression analysis, etc.). See the 4Mi page for more information.
Since the 4Mi questionnaire is the same across regions and most of its items are compulsory, the amount of missing data is very low. Refusals and “don’t knows” are, as a rule, reported in publications.
4Mi data and analysis provide contextual insights and evidence to support new thinking about the focus and location of new humanitarian or development activities, new directions for migration and related policies, and increase the knowledge base on mixed migration generally.
4Mi data is used in most MMC reports and publications, as well as in 4Mi Interactive, and MMC frequently presents 4Mi findings at conferences and seminars.
MMC has a number of agreements with partners to provide 4Mi data and analysis, and frequently responds to ad hoc requests for information, both from DRC staff and external organizations. 4Mi data has been used in a wide range of non-MMC projects and reports, including IOM’s “Missing Migrants” project and in reports by organisations such as UNICEF, UNHCR, UNFPA, UNODC, OHCHR, Clingendael and the Expert Council of German Foundations on Integration and Migration, as well as governments.
Yes. 4Mi can provide the necessary contextual analysis, and provide credible evidence on where and why there is a need to develop a response for refugees and migrants on the move. It can provide the project rationale, followed by more targeted needs assessment, independent of 4Mi. In terms of a programme cycle, 4Mi plays a particular role in the initial analysis, strategic design and (as a consequence) resource mobilisation. Given the limitations of the methodology, 4Mi cannot provide rapid data on the need for real-time flexible adjustments during programme implementation, though during longer-term programmes it can provide indications of shifting trends and needs.
No. 4Mi is not a tool that can be used to monitor programme implementation, although it can provide insights in preparing a baseline study.
4Mi data and analysis can inform humanitarian response programming, policy making, and additional research into mixed migration.
Use 4Mi Interactive to explore the data and generate findings that are useful to you. Graphs and data published in MMC publications or generated through 4Mi Interactive can be used freely in external publications or presentations, as long as the source is acknowledged as “4Mi data – Mixed Migration Centre”. MMC also has an information request system: contact us for details.
MMC has a number of 4Mi data sharing agreements with selected organisations and responds to ad hoc requests for parts of the dataset and/or data analysis on a case-by-case basis and depending on the nature of the request and available resources. MMC does not publish or share the full raw data set.
After an initial suspension when the pandemic was declared in March 2020, data collection resumed early April with new methods to allow for remote recruitment of respondents, and telephone interviews. Between April 2020 and January 2021 our interviews focused on the impact of Covid-19, and we held more than 23,000 interviews. The results are available on 4Mi Interactive and in numerous publications.
These surveys focused on awareness and access to information on COVID-19; access to health services; the impact of the crisis on individuals; changes in needs; and changes in migration experiences and intentions. Enumerators also shared WHO information on COVID-19 symptoms and measures to control transmission. In early 2021, MMC reverted to the main 4Mi survey but incorporated questions on Covid-19. We conduct surveys face-to-face where it is safe to do so, and remotely where this is the best option.