Mixed Migration Review 2023

Regional issues through regional perspectives

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Photo: iStock / Miljko

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Quarterly Mixed Migration Updates (Quarter 3 2023)

The latest mixed migration trends and dynamics around the world

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Photo credit: Muse Mohammed/IOM

Migrant Stories

Journeys of Ethiopian Returnees

Ayana, Omari, and Tamru's journeys through Yemen into Saudi Arabia, and eventually back to Ethiopia

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About MMC’s work in Eastern and Southern Africa

MMC engages in data collection, research, analysis and policy development on mixed migration in Eastern and Southern Africa, Egypt and Yemen. The core areas of focus include the Eastern route, from East and the Horn of Africa towards the Gulf; the Southern route from East Africa and the Great Lakes towards South Africa; and the Central Mediterranean Route (also called the Northern Route) from East and the Horn of Africa towards North Africa.

Our primary objectives are to fill the knowledge gap on mixed migration in the region; to inform programming for refugees and migrants, particularly in the area of protection; and to inform policy-making around the rights and protection of people on the move.

MMC’s flagship data collection project ‘4Mi currently operates in Burundi, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and South Africa, where enumerators carry out surveys with people travelling along mixed migration routes out of East Africa towards North Africa and Europe (Northern route), Yemen & Saudi Arabia (Eastern route) and Southern Africa (Southern route).

Mixed Migration in Eastern and Southern Africa

Migration in and from East Africa is significant in volume and diverse in profile and mixed migration flows include refugees, asylum seekers, forced migrants, as well as migrants who are motivated to move by many different factors. Mixed migration flows from the East Africa region typically follow three main migratory routes: the ‘Northern Route’ towards North Africa and often onwards to Europe; the ‘Southern Route’ towards South Africa; and the ‘Eastern Route’ towards Yemen and other parts of the Gulf. MMC’s research finds that a complex mix of conflict, insecurity and economic factors are key drivers of mixed migration from East Africa, with a variety of profiles of people on the move.

Our funding partners

MMC’s work in Eastern and Southern Africa is made possible through the generous support and close cooperation with various partners

  • Swiss SDC
  • Danida
  • International Organization for Migration (IOM) 
  • Save the Children 
  • The Bureau of Population Refugees and Migration (PRM) 
  • European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (ECHO) 
  • GFFO

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