New UNODC/MMC report

Following the money

Understanding the economics of human smuggling in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia

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© Visarut Sankham / IOM


Quarterly Mixed Migration Updates (Q1 2024)

The latest mixed migration trends and dynamics around the world

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Photo: Muse Mohammed / IOM

Latest research

Comparing smuggling dynamics

from Myanmar to Malaysia and Thailand

Read the report
Photo: Visarut Sankham / IOM

About MMC’s work in Asia and the Pacific

MMC engages in data collection, research, analysis and policy development on mixed migration in Asia and the Pacific.  

Our primary objectives are to fill the knowledge gap on mixed migration in the region; to inform programming for migrants, particularly in the area of protection; and to inform policy-making around the rights and protection of people on the move. 

MMC’s flagship data collection project ‘4Mi’ currently operates in Turkey, Indonesia and Malaysia. 

Mixed Migration in Asia and the Pacific

Asia is characterized by fast evolving and complex population movements, including the large-scale and often irregular movement of migrants. Across the region, weak legal protection frameworks result in migrants often being categorized as “irregular” or “illegal” migrants, subjecting them to measures including arrest, detention and deportation as well as increasing their risk of exploitation. Throughout the region many take great risks to escape life-threatening situations, such as conflicts, violence, discrimination or natural disasters, embarking on perilous journeys by land or sea. Others, motivated in search of better opportunities, migrate to work in often dangerous, dirty and demeaning (3D) jobs, exposing them to risks such as exploitation and trafficking. Regardless of their motivations for migration, people moving in mixed migration across Asia travel along similar routes and engage similar means, often travelling irregularly with the assistance of smugglers.

Our funding partners

MMC’s work in Asia and the Pacific is made possible through the generous support and close cooperation with various partners

  • Danida
  • European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (ECHO) 

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