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Multiple and intersecting harms

Examining use of force in return and its detrimental impact on migrants’ human rights during and after return to Senegal

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Photo: © Amaury Michaux

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Quarterly Mixed Migration Updates (Q1 2024)

The latest mixed migration trends and dynamics around the world

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Photo: Muse Mohammed / IOM

Featured resource

Return and reintegration in the context of Senegal

Strengthening the evidence base

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Photo: Amaury Michaux

About MMC’s work in West Africa

MMC engages in data collection, research, analysis and policy development on mixed migration in West Africa.  

Our primary objectives are to fill the knowledge gap on mixed migration in the region; to inform programming for migrants, particularly in the area of protection; and to inform policy-making around the rights and protection of people on the move. 

MMC’s flagship data collection project ‘4Mi’ currently operates in Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, and Guinea, interviewing migrants from across West and Central Africa who are either moving within the region or heading towards North Africa and Europe. 

Mixed Migration in West Africa

West Africa is a region with a long-standing culture of migration, primarily characterized by intra-regional movements. Among migrants interviewed by 4Mi, the data collection programme of MMC, those moving out of the region reported to be migrating predominantly towards North Africa and elsewhere in Africa, and to a lesser extent towards Europe. Return movements include expulsions from Algeria to Niger, evacuations from Libya to Niger, as well as returns through the Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration programmes. Mobility within and out of the region takes place through temporary, circular and more permanent movements, principally for the purpose of labor, but also for other reasons including personal or family reasons. Conflict and violence also lead to internal and cross-border displacement. While the majority of the population live in rural areas, West Africa is experiencing a rapid pace of urbanization.

Our funding partners

MMC’s work in West Africa is made possible through the generous support and close cooperation with various partners

  • Swiss SDC
  • Danida
  • ICMPD
  • OHCHR
  • European Union

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