Mixed Migration in Kenya:

The scale of movement and associated protection risks

An overview of mixed migration flows in Kenya, the risks and protection issues facing those in mixed migration flows and the responses to these flows, from both government and non-state actors.

Kenya is a critical hub in the region and attracts a large flow of mixed migration. Predominantly a country of destination and transit for smuggled migrants, it hosts the largest refugee population of Somalis in the world – more than half a million – and a high number of Ethiopians and South Sudanese in the two camp complexes of Dadaab and Kakuma. In addition, it also hosts a sizeable number of IDPs.

This report provides an overview of each of the main groups within mixed migration flows in Kenya: smuggled migrants, irregular migrants, refugees and asylum seekers, trafficked migrants and IDPs. For each of these groups, the risks and protection issues as well as the response to these flows, from both government and non-state actors, are discussed. A number of knowledge, policy and legal gaps in protection and assistance are also identified. This section summarises the main findings, clustered around these three categories.


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