Refugee protection, human smuggling, and trafficking

in Bangladesh and Southeast Asia

This research report critically assesses the risks and needs of Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh and Southeast Asia across three thematic domains: refugee protection, human trafficking, and human smuggling. The research draws from three national contexts: Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia.

The research explores the following questions: What is the regional and national policy landscape for refugee protection, anti-smuggling, and anti-trafficking? What are the risks and opportunities in these domains?

This report has been produced under the Protecting Rohingya Refugees in Asia (PRRiA) project, a two-year ECHO-funded initiative launched in 2021 to address protection risks and needs of Rohingya refugees in Southeast Asia. Access other publications under the PRRiA project here:

Rohingya refugees in Thailand

Profiles and drivers of Rohingya moving to Malaysia

Protection risks for Rohingya women and children

Journeys to Indonesia for Rohingya refugees

Protection risks of Rohingya refugees in Malaysia

Rohingya refugees in Indonesia: a focus on smuggling, information, and financing


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