Smuggling and mixed migration

Insights and key messages drawn from a decade of MMC research and 4Mi data collection

The movement of refugees and migrants along mixed migration routes around the world is often wholly or partially facilitated by smugglers. Human smuggling has therefore been a primary focus of the Mixed Migration Centre (MMC). This paper synthesizes our key insights and sets out six key messages on smuggling, based on a decade of extensive research and expert analysis, including more than 85,000 4Mi surveys of refugees and migrants and hundreds of 4Mi surveys with smugglers.


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